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Scientific Overview Research Interest Summary Principal Investigators    Yuri Bushkin, Ph.D.
   Theresa Chang, Ph.D.
   Neeraj Chauhan, Ph.D.
   Véronique Dartois, Ph.D.
   Thomas Dick, Ph.D.
   Karl Drlica, Ph.D.
   David Dubnau, Ph.D.
   Eliseo A. Eugenin, Ph.D.
   Marila Gennaro, M.D.
   Fred Kramer, Ph.D.
   Barry Kreiswirth, Ph.D.
   Min Lu, Ph.D.
   Leonard Mindich, Ph.D.
   Arkady Mustaev, Ph.D.
   Jyothi Nagajyothi, Ph.D.
   David Perlin, Ph.D.
   Abraham Pinter, Ph.D.
   Marcela Rodriguez, Ph.D.
   Jeanne Salje, Ph.D.
   Lanbo Shi, Ph.D.
   Selvakumar Subbian, Ph.D.
   Sanjay Tyagi, Ph.D.
   Christopher Vinnard, M.D.
   Chaoyang Xue, Ph.D.
   Xilin Zhao, Ph.D.

   Research Faculty
   Liang Chen, Ph.D.
   Eugenie Dubnau, Ph.D.
   Jeanette Hahn, Ph.D.
   Salvatore Marras, Ph.D.
   Yanan Zhao, Ph.D.

Emeritus Faculty Recent Publications
Gilla Kaplan, Ph.D.

Research Summary  |  Selected Publications

Tuberculosis Program of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Public Health Research Institute Center
New Jersey Medical School - Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
225 Warren Street
Newark, New Jersey 07103

Research Summary

Gilla Kaplan, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine in the Laboratory of Mycobacterial Immunity and Pathogenesis at the Public Health Research Institute Center of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Dr. Kaplan’s expertise encompasses studies of human disease and animal models to better understand host immune responses and the role of cytokine production in the pathogenesis of microbial infections. For the past 30 years, Dr. Kaplan has been studying the role of macrophage activation in the host response, initially to tumors and later to mycobacterial infections. She and her colleagues have studied immune responses to intradermal administration of recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN-Gamma), interleukin 2 (rIL2) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) in persons with lepromatous leprosy; examined T cell responsiveness and suppression in leprosy; defined immune activation and gene expression in patients with tuberculosis (TB) following treatment with rIL-2; and characterized interactions between M. tuberculosis and HIV or M. leprae and HIV in co-infected patients. More recently, Dr. Kaplan and her group determined that the production of macrophage proinflammatory cytokines are differentially induced following infection with different clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis, leading to different extents of disease progression and clinical outcome. Dr. Kaplan and her team have shown that thalidomide treatment modifies TNF-Alpha and IL-12 production and can improve outcome in humans with lepromatous leprosy, TB or HIV infection, in animal models of inhalational TB (in mice) and TB meningitis (in rabbits), and in vitroin M.tuberculosis-infected human monocytes. Dr. Kaplan and her team have since developed two classes of novel, synthetic analogues of thalidomide that reduce TNF-Alpha production by 50,000 times more than the parent drug, thalidomide, and with fewer deleterious side effects. Co-treatment with these analogues, in combination with antibiotics, is significantly more efficient in reducing TNF-Alpha production and improving survival of rabbits with experimental TB meningitis than antibiotic treatment alone. The immunomodulatory drugs are being further tested as adjunctive therapy to antibiotic treatment in mice and rabbits with pulmonary TB to reduce tissue injury and improve response to treatment.

In addition to Dr. Kaplan's studies at the Public Health Research Institute, she has a number of off shore collaborative studies being conducted at the University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. The pathogenic process that occurs in the lung of TB patients is being analyzed and the effect of antiretroviral treatment of HIV infected individuals on TB disease and MTB transmission are being studied in collaboration with Dr. Linda-Gail Bekker Wood. In addition, immunologic correlates of BCG vaccination-induced protective immunity against TB disease in infants are being defined in collaboration with Dr (s) Willem Hanekom and Greg Hussey. Dr. Kaplan has recently begun a study to explore host and pathogen factors that contribute to the failure of treatment of MDR TB, ultimately leading to emergence of XDR TB strains in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients in collaboration with Drs. Gerrit Coetzee, Clive Gray and Martin Grobusch of the National Health Laboratory Services and the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. In addition, Dr. Kaplan is the PI of a Fogarty International Training Grant “Analysis of X/MDR TB strains: safety, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The grant will bring South African TB investigators to UMDNJ to train in TB molecular epidemiology, diagnostics and safe Biosafety Level 3 practices.

Selected Publications

Subbian S, O'Brien P, Kushner NL, Yang G, Tsenova L, Peixoto B, Bandyopadhyay N, Bader JS, Karakousis PC, Fallows D, Kaplan G (2013) Molecular immunologic correlates of spontaneous latency in a rabbit model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Cell Commun Signal 11: 16. PMI: 23448601

Subbian S, Bandyopadhyay N, Tsenova L, P OB, Khetani V, Kushner NL, Peixoto B, Soteropoulos P, Bader JS, Karakousis PC, Fallows D, Kaplan G (2013) Early innate immunity determines outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pulmonary infection in rabbits. Cell Commun Signal 11: 60. PMI: 23958185

Guirado E, Schlesinger LS, Kaplan G (2013) Macrophages in tuberculosis: friend or foe. Semin Immunopathol 35: 563-583. PMI: 23864058

Das R, Koo MS, Kim BH, Jacob ST, Subbian S, Yao J, Leng L, Levy R, Murchison C, Burman WJ, Moore CC, Scheld WM, David JR, Kaplan G, Macmicking JD, Bucala R (2013) Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a critical mediator of the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110: E2997-3006. PMI: 23882081

Subbian S, Tsenova L, O'Brien P, Yang G, Kushner NL, Parsons S, Peixoto B, Fallows D, Kaplan G (2012) Spontaneous latency in a rabbit model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Pathol 181: 1711-1724. PMI: 22960076

Robertson BD, Altmann D, Barry C, Bishai B, Cole S, Dick T, Duncan K, Dye C, Ehrt S, Esmail H, Flynn J, Hafner R, Handley G, Hanekom W, van Helden P, Kaplan G, Kaufmann SH, Kim P, Lienhardt C, Mizrahi V, Rubin E, Schnappinger D, Sherman D, Thole J, Vandal O, Walzl G, Warner D, Wilkinson R, Young D (2012) Detection and treatment of subclinical tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92: 447-452. PMI: 22819716

Riou C, Perez Peixoto B, Roberts L, Ronacher K, Walzl G, Manca C, Rustomjee R, Mthiyane T, Fallows D, Gray CM, Kaplan G (2012) Effect of standard tuberculosis treatment on plasma cytokine levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. PLoS One 7: e36886. PMI: 22606304

Mathema B, Kurepina N, Yang G, Shashkina E, Manca C, Mehaffy C, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Ahuja S, Fallows DA, Izzo A, Bifani P, Dobos K, Kaplan G, Kreiswirth BN (2012) Epidemiologic consequences of microvariation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 205: 964-974. PMI: 22315279

Manca C, Peixoto B, Malaga W, Guilhot C, Kaplan G (2012) Modulation of the cytokine response in human monocytes by mycobacterium leprae phenolic glycolipid-1. J Interferon Cytokine Res 32: 27-33. PMI: 21981546

Koo MS, Subbian S, Kaplan G (2012) Strain specific transcriptional response in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected macrophages. Cell Commun Signal 10: 2. PMI: 22280836

Subbian S, Tsenova L, Yang G, O'Brien P, Parsons S, Peixoto B, Taylor L, Fallows D, Kaplan G (2011) Chronic pulmonary cavitary tuberculosis in rabbits: a failed host immune response. Open Biol 1: 110016. PMI: 22645653

Subbian S, Tsenova L, O'Brien P, Yang G, Koo MS, Peixoto B, Fallows D, Zeldis JB, Muller G, Kaplan G (2011) Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition combined with isoniazid treatment of rabbits with pulmonary tuberculosis reduces macrophage activation and lung pathology. Am J Pathol 179: 289-301. PMI: 21703411

Subbian S, Tsenova L, O'Brien P, Yang G, Koo MS, Peixoto B, Fallows D, Dartois V, Muller G, Kaplan G (2011) Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition alters gene expression and improves isoniazid-mediated clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rabbit lungs. PLoS Pathog 7: e1002262. PMI: 21949656

Singhal A, Mathys V, Kiass M, Creusy C, Delaire B, Aliouat el M, Dartois V, Kaplan G, Bifani P (2011) BCG induces protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the Wistar rat model. PLoS One 6: e28082. PMI: 22162757

Singhal A, Aliouat el M, Herve M, Mathys V, Kiass M, Creusy C, Delaire B, Tsenova L, Fleurisse L, Bertout J, Camacho L, Foo D, Tay HC, Siew JY, Boukhouchi W, Romano M, Mathema B, Dartois V, Kaplan G, Bifani P (2011) Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection. PLoS One 6: e18632. PMI: 21533270

Koo MS, Manca C, Yang G, O'Brien P, Sung N, Tsenova L, Subbian S, Fallows D, Muller G, Ehrt S, Kaplan G (2011) Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition reduces innate immunity and improves isoniazid clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs of infected mice. PLoS One 6: e17091. PMI: 21364878

Day CL, Abrahams DA, Lerumo L, Janse van Rensburg E, Stone L, O'Rie T, Pienaar B, de Kock M, Kaplan G, Mahomed H, Dheda K, Hanekom WA (2011) Functional capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses in humans is associated with mycobacterial load. J Immunol 187: 2222-2232. PMI: 21775682

Wang C, Peyron P, Mestre O, Kaplan G, van Soolingen D, Gao Q, Gicquel B, Neyrolles O (2010) Innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing and other genotypes. PLoS One 5: e13594. PMI: 21049036

Sinsimer D, Fallows D, Peixoto B, Krahenbuhl J, Kaplan G, Manca C (2010) Mycobacterium leprae actively modulates the cytokine response in naive human monocytes. Infect Immun 78: 293-300. PMI: 19841079

Seimon TA, Kim MJ, Blumenthal A, Koo J, Ehrt S, Wainwright H, Bekker LG, Kaplan G, Nathan C, Tabas I, Russell DG (2010) Induction of ER stress in macrophages of tuberculosis granulomas. PLoS One 5: e12772. PMI: 20856677

Middelkoop K, Bekker LG, Myer L, Whitelaw A, Grant A, Kaplan G, McIntyre J, Wood R (2010) Antiretroviral program associated with reduction in untreated prevalent tuberculosis in a South African township. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182: 1080-1085. PMI: 20558626

Kim MJ, Wainwright HC, Locketz M, Bekker LG, Walther GB, Dittrich C, Visser A, Wang W, Hsu FF, Wiehart U, Tsenova L, Kaplan G, Russell DG (2010) Caseation of human tuberculosis granulomas correlates with elevated host lipid metabolism. EMBO Mol Med 2: 258-274. PMI: 20597103

Kana BD, Abrahams GL, Sung N, Warner DF, Gordhan BG, Machowski EE, Tsenova L, Sacchettini JC, Stoker NG, Kaplan G, Mizrahi V (2010) Role of the DinB homologs Rv1537 and Rv3056 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Bacteriol 192: 2220-2227. PMI: 20139184

Kagina BM, Abel B, Scriba TJ, Hughes EJ, Keyser A, Soares A, Gamieldien H, Sidibana M, Hatherill M, Gelderbloem S, Mahomed H, Hawkridge A, Hussey G, Kaplan G, Hanekom WA (2010) Specific T cell frequency and cytokine expression profile do not correlate with protection against tuberculosis after bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination of newborns. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182: 1073-1079. PMI: 20558627

Reich-Slotky R, Kabbash CA, Della-Latta P, Blanchard JS, Feinmark SJ, Freeman S, Kaplan G, Shuman HA, Silverstein SC (2009) Gemfibrozil inhibits Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl coenzyme A reductases and blocks intracellular growth of these bacteria in macrophages. J Bacteriol 191: 5262-5271. PMI: 19429621

Mowa MB, Warner DF, Kaplan G, Kana BD, Mizrahi V (2009) Function and regulation of class I ribonucleotide reductase-encoding genes in mycobacteria. J Bacteriol 191: 985-995. PMI: 19028890

Middelkoop K, Bekker LG, Mathema B, Shashkina E, Kurepina N, Whitelaw A, Fallows D, Morrow C, Kreiswirth B, Kaplan G, Wood R (2009) Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a South African community with high HIV prevalence. J Infect Dis 200: 1207-1211. PMI: 19764885

Mansoor N, Abel B, Scriba TJ, Hughes J, de Kock M, Tameris M, Mlenjeni S, Denation L, Little F, Gelderbloem S, Hawkridge A, Boom WH, Kaplan G, Hussey GD, Hanekom WA (2009) Significantly skewed memory CD8+ T cell subsets in HIV-1 infected infants during the first year of life. Clin Immunol 130: 280-289. PMI: 18996749

Bochud PY, Sinsimer D, Aderem A, Siddiqui MR, Saunderson P, Britton S, Abraham I, Tadesse Argaw A, Janer M, Hawn TR, Kaplan G (2009) Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are associated with protection against leprosy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28: 1055-1065. PMI: 19430824

Watkins ML, Semple PL, Abel B, Hanekom WA, Kaplan G, Ress SR (2008) Exposure of cord blood to Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces an innate response but not a T-cell cytokine response. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15: 1666-1673. PMI: 18815231

Soares AP, Scriba TJ, Joseph S, Harbacheuski R, Murray RA, Gelderbloem SJ, Hawkridge A, Hussey GD, Maecker H, Kaplan G, Hanekom WA (2008) Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination of human newborns induces T cells with complex cytokine and phenotypic profiles. J Immunol 180: 3569-3577. PMI: 18292584

Sinsimer D, Huet G, Manca C, Tsenova L, Koo MS, Kurepina N, Kana B, Mathema B, Marras SA, Kreiswirth BN, Guilhot C, Kaplan G (2008) The phenolic glycolipid of Mycobacterium tuberculosis differentially modulates the early host cytokine response but does not in itself confer hypervirulence. Infect Immun 76: 3027-3036. PMI: 18443098

Sarno EN, Illarramendi X, Nery JA, Sales AM, Gutierrez-Galhardo MC, Penna ML, Sampaio EP, Kaplan G (2008) HIV-M. leprae interaction: can HAART modify the course of leprosy? Public Health Rep 123: 206-212. PMI: 18457073

Misch EA, Macdonald M, Ranjit C, Sapkota BR, Wells RD, Siddiqui MR, Kaplan G, Hawn TR (2008) Human TLR1 deficiency is associated with impaired mycobacterial signaling and protection from leprosy reversal reaction. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e231. PMI: 18461142

Kana BD, Gordhan BG, Downing KJ, Sung N, Vostroktunova G, Machowski EE, Tsenova L, Young M, Kaprelyants A, Kaplan G, Mizrahi V (2008) The resuscitation-promoting factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are required for virulence and resuscitation from dormancy but are collectively dispensable for growth in vitro. Mol Microbiol 67: 672-684. PMI: 18186793

Hoft DF, Blazevic A, Abate G, Hanekom WA, Kaplan G, Soler JH, Weichold F, Geiter L, Sadoff JC, Horwitz MA (2008) A new recombinant bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine safely induces significantly enhanced tuberculosis-specific immunity in human volunteers. J Infect Dis 198: 1491-1501. PMI: 18808333

Hawkridge A, Hatherill M, Little F, Goetz MA, Barker L, Mahomed H, Sadoff J, Hanekom W, Geiter L, Hussey G (2008) Efficacy of percutaneous versus intradermal BCG in the prevention of tuberculosis in South African infants: randomised trial. BMJ 337: a2052. PMI: 19008268

Bochud PY, Hawn TR, Siddiqui MR, Saunderson P, Britton S, Abraham I, Argaw AT, Janer M, Zhao LP, Kaplan G, Aderem A (2008) Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) polymorphisms are associated with reversal reaction in leprosy. J Infect Dis 197: 253-261. PMI: 18177245

Wood R, Middelkoop K, Myer L, Grant AD, Whitelaw A, Lawn SD, Kaplan G, Huebner R, McIntyre J, Bekker LG (2007) Undiagnosed tuberculosis in a community with high HIV prevalence: implications for tuberculosis control. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175: 87-93. PMI: 16973982

Tsenova L, Harbacheuski R, Sung N, Ellison E, Fallows D, Kaplan G (2007) BCG vaccination confers poor protection against M. tuberculosis HN878-induced central nervous system disease. Vaccine 25: 5126-5132. PMI: 17241704

Murray RA, Siddiqui MR, Mendillo M, Krahenbuhl J, Kaplan G (2007) Mycobacterium leprae inhibits dendritic cell activation and maturation. J Immunol 178: 338-344. PMI: 17182571

Davids V, Hanekom W, Gelderbloem SJ, Hawkridge A, Hussey G, Sheperd R, Workman L, Soler J, Murray RA, Ress SR, Kaplan G (2007) Dose-dependent immune response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in neonates. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14: 198-200. PMI: 17182761

Tsenova L, Harbacheuski R, Moreira AL, Ellison E, Dalemans W, Alderson MR, Mathema B, Reed SG, Skeiky YA, Kaplan G (2006) Evaluation of the Mtb72F polyprotein vaccine in a rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis. Infect Immun 74: 2392-2401. PMI: 16552069

Timm J, Kurepina N, Kreiswirth BN, Post FA, Walther GB, Wainwright HC, Bekker LG, Kaplan G, McKinney JD (2006) A multidrug-resistant, acr1-deficient clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unimpaired for replication in macrophages. J Infect Dis 193: 1703-1710. PMI: 16703514

Murray RA, Mansoor N, Harbacheuski R, Soler J, Davids V, Soares A, Hawkridge A, Hussey GD, Maecker H, Kaplan G, Hanekom WA (2006) Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination of human newborns induces a specific, functional CD8+ T cell response. J Immunol 177: 5647-5651. PMI: 17015753

Mendelson M, Hanekom WA, Ntutela S, Vogt M, Steyn L, Maartens G, Kaplan G (2006) Quantitative and functional differences between peripheral blood myeloid dendritic cells from patients with pleural and parenchymal lung tuberculosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13: 1299-1306. PMI: 17005928

Melikoglu M, Uysal S, Krueger JG, Kaplan G, Gogus F, Yazici H, Oliver S (2006) Characterization of the divergent wound-healing responses occurring in the pathergy reaction and normal healthy volunteers. J Immunol 177: 6415-6421. PMI: 17056573

Freeman S, Post FA, Bekker LG, Harbacheuski R, Steyn LM, Ryffel B, Connell ND, Kreiswirth BN, Kaplan G (2006) Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and H37Rv differential growth and cytokine/chemokine induction in murine macrophages in vitro. J Interferon Cytokine Res 26: 27-33. PMI: 16426145

Davids V, Hanekom WA, Mansoor N, Gamieldien H, Gelderbloem SJ, Hawkridge A, Hussey GD, Hughes EJ, Soler J, Murray RA, Ress SR, Kaplan G (2006) The effect of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine strain and route of administration on induced immune responses in vaccinated infants. J Infect Dis 193: 531-536. PMI: 16425132

Tsenova L, Ellison E, Harbacheuski R, Moreira AL, Kurepina N, Reed MB, Mathema B, Barry CE, 3rd, Kaplan G (2005) Virulence of selected Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in the rabbit model of meningitis is dependent on phenolic glycolipid produced by the bacilli. J Infect Dis 192: 98-106. PMI: 15942899

Shrestha N, Ida JA, Lubinski AS, Pallin M, Kaplan G, Haslett PA (2005) Regulation of acquired immunity by gamma delta T-cell/dendritic-cell interactions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1062: 79-94. PMI: 16461791

Manca C, Tsenova L, Freeman S, Barczak AK, Tovey M, Murray PJ, Barry C, Kaplan G (2005) Hypervirulent M. tuberculosis W/Beijing strains upregulate type I IFNs and increase expression of negative regulators of the Jak-Stat pathway. J Interferon Cytokine Res 25: 694-701. PMI: 16318583

Kaplan G (2005) Rational vaccine development--a new trend in tuberculosis control. N Engl J Med 353: 1624-1625. PMI: 16221789

Haslett PA, Roche P, Butlin CR, Macdonald M, Shrestha N, Manandhar R, Lemaster J, Hawksworth R, Shah M, Lubinsky AS, Albert M, Worley J, Kaplan G (2005) Effective treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum with thalidomide is associated with immune stimulation. J Infect Dis 192: 2045-2053. PMI: 16288366

Davidow A, Kanaujia GV, Shi L, Kaviar J, Guo X, Sung N, Kaplan G, Menzies D, Gennaro ML (2005) Antibody profiles characteristic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection state. Infect Immun 73: 6846-6851. PMI: 16177363

Barczak AK, Domenech P, Boshoff HI, Reed MB, Manca C, Kaplan G, Barry CE, 3rd (2005) In vivo phenotypic dominance in mouse mixed infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. J Infect Dis 192: 600-606. PMI: 16028128

Schoeman JF, Springer P, van Rensburg AJ, Swanevelder S, Hanekom WA, Haslett PA, Kaplan G (2004) Adjunctive thalidomide therapy for childhood tuberculous meningitis: results of a randomized study. J Child Neurol 19: 250-257. PMI: 15163089

Reed MB, Domenech P, Manca C, Su H, Barczak AK, Kreiswirth BN, Kaplan G, Barry CE, 3rd (2004) A glycolipid of hypervirulent tuberculosis strains that inhibits the innate immune response. Nature 431: 84-87. PMI: 15343336

Post FA, Willcox PA, Mathema B, Steyn LM, Shean K, Ramaswamy SV, Graviss EA, Shashkina E, Kreiswirth BN, Kaplan G (2004) Genetic polymorphism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with chronic multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 190: 99-106. PMI: 15195248

Manca C, Reed MB, Freeman S, Mathema B, Kreiswirth B, Barry CE, 3rd, Kaplan G (2004) Differential monocyte activation underlies strain-specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Infect Immun 72: 5511-5514. PMI: 15322056

Hanekom WA, Hughes J, Mavinkurve M, Mendillo M, Watkins M, Gamieldien H, Gelderbloem SJ, Sidibana M, Mansoor N, Davids V, Murray RA, Hawkridge A, Haslett PA, Ress S, Hussey GD, Kaplan G (2004) Novel application of a whole blood intracellular cytokine detection assay to quantitate specific T-cell frequency in field studies. J Immunol Methods 291: 185-195. PMI: 15345316

Domenech P, Reed MB, Dowd CS, Manca C, Kaplan G, Barry CE, 3rd (2004) The role of MmpL8 in sulfatide biogenesis and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem 279: 21257-21265. PMI: 15001577

Timm J, Post FA, Bekker LG, Walther GB, Wainwright HC, Manganelli R, Chan WT, Tsenova L, Gold B, Smith I, Kaplan G, McKinney JD (2003) Differential expression of iron-, carbon-, and oxygen-responsive mycobacterial genes in the lungs of chronically infected mice and tuberculosis patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 14321-14326. PMI: 14623960

Kaplan G, Post FA, Moreira AL, Wainwright H, Kreiswirth BN, Tanverdi M, Mathema B, Ramaswamy SV, Walther G, Steyn LM, Barry CE, 3rd, Bekker LG (2003) Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth at the cavity surface: a microenvironment with failed immunity. Infect Immun 71: 7099-7108. PMI: 14638800

Haslett PA, Hanekom WA, Muller G, Kaplan G (2003) Thalidomide and a thalidomide analogue drug costimulate virus-specific CD8+ T cells in vitro. J Infect Dis 187: 946-955. PMI: 12660941

Hanekom WA, Mendillo M, Manca C, Haslett PA, Siddiqui MR, Barry C, 3rd, Kaplan G (2003) Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro. J Infect Dis 188: 257-266. PMI: 12854081

Dawes SS, Warner DF, Tsenova L, Timm J, McKinney JD, Kaplan G, Rubin H, Mizrahi V (2003) Ribonucleotide reduction in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: function and expression of genes encoding class Ib and class II ribonucleotide reductases. Infect Immun 71: 6124-6131. PMI: 14573627

Dahl JL, Kraus CN, Boshoff HI, Doan B, Foley K, Avarbock D, Kaplan G, Mizrahi V, Rubin H, Barry CE, 3rd (2003) The role of RelMtb-mediated adaptation to stationary phase in long-term persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 10026-10031. PMI: 12897239

Wohl DA, Aweeka FT, Schmitz J, Pomerantz R, Cherng DW, Spritzler J, Fox L, Simpson D, Bell D, Holohan MK, Thomas S, Robinson W, Kaplan G, Teppler H (2002) Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic effects of thalidomide in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: AIDS Clinical Trials Group 267. J Infect Dis 185: 1359-1363. PMI: 12001058

Tsenova L, Mangaliso B, Muller G, Chen Y, Freedman VH, Stirling D, Kaplan G (2002) Use of IMiD3, a thalidomide analog, as an adjunct to therapy for experimental tuberculous meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 1887-1895. PMI: 12019105

Siddiqui MR, Moreira AL, Negesse Y, Taye GA, Hanekom WA, Haslett PA, Britton S, Kaplan G (2002) Local nerve damage in leprosy does not lead to an impaired cellular immune response or decreased wound healing in the skin. J Infect Dis 186: 260-265. PMI: 12134264

Oliver SJ, Kikuchi T, Krueger JG, Kaplan G (2002) Thalidomide induces granuloma differentiation in sarcoid skin lesions associated with disease improvement. Clin Immunol 102: 225-236. PMI: 11890709

Murray HW, Lu CM, Mauze S, Freeman S, Moreira AL, Kaplan G, Coffman RL (2002) Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in experimental visceral leishmaniasis and IL-10 receptor blockade as immunotherapy. Infect Immun 70: 6284-6293. PMI: 12379707

Moreira AL, Tsenova L, Aman MH, Bekker LG, Freeman S, Mangaliso B, Schroder U, Jagirdar J, Rom WN, Tovey MG, Freedman VH, Kaplan G (2002) Mycobacterial antigens exacerbate disease manifestations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. Infect Immun 70: 2100-2107. PMI: 11895976

Jaslow R, Kaplan G, Lyons L, Michaeli J, Coleman M (2002) Thalidomide in multiple myeloma--from the clinic to the laboratory. Cancer Invest 20: 1051-1058. PMI: 12449738

Strauch B, Rodriguez DM, Diaz J, Yu HL, Kaplan G, Weinstein DE (2001) Autologous Schwann cells drive regeneration through a 6-cm autogenous venous nerve conduit. J Reconstr Microsurg 17: 589-595; discussion 596-587. PMI: 11740653

Post FA, Manca C, Neyrolles O, Ryffel B, Young DB, Kaplan G (2001) Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kilodalton lipoprotein inhibits Mycobacterium smegmatis-induced cytokine production by human macrophages in vitro. Infect Immun 69: 1433-1439. PMI: 11179309

Manca C, Tsenova L, Bergtold A, Freeman S, Tovey M, Musser JM, Barry CE, 3rd, Freedman VH, Kaplan G (2001) Virulence of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolate in mice is determined by failure to induce Th1 type immunity and is associated with induction of IFN-alpha /beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 5752-5757. PMI: 11320211

Hanekom WA, Hughes J, Haslett PA, Apolles P, Ganiso V, Allin R, Goddard E, Hussey GD, Kaplan G (2001) The immunomodulatory effects of thalidomide on human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. J Infect Dis 184: 1192-1196. PMI: 11598844

Bekker LG, Freeman S, Murray PJ, Ryffel B, Kaplan G (2001) TNF-alpha controls intracellular mycobacterial growth by both inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent and inducible nitric oxide synthase-independent pathways. J Immunol 166: 6728-6734. PMI: 11359829

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