Public Health Research Institute Center and
at the International Center for Public Health
New Jersey Medical School - Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
225 Warren Street
Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
Phone: (973) 854-3150
Fax: (973) 854-3201
Viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by viruses that attack the CNS, such as HIV, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, SARS and others, can result in neurologic dysfunction with devastating consequences in the infected individuals. The mechanisms that results in CNS invasion, inflammation and loss of neurons by these viruses are unknown. However, we hypothesize that blood brain barrier compromise, microglia/macrophage activation, secretion of inflammatory factors, and compromise of glial and neuronal survival/function are key features of these viral CNS infections.
Our current focus is in HIV, however, we will expand our scope of research to others viruses that invade the CNS and cause CNS compromise and death.
The main focuses of our research are:
1. The role of connexin and pannexin containing channels, gap junctions and hemichannels, in the pathogenesis of NeuroAIDS. Our studies demonstrated that these channels play a key role in the amplification of CNS damage from few HIV infected astrocytes to uninfected surrounding cells. We focus our research in the infection of glial cells and in the mechanisms of viral reactivation.
2. The role of pannexin-1 hemichannels, purinergic receptors and ATP in the HIV life cycle. Our studies demonstrated that these channels/receptors/neurotransmitters work together in human primary macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes to facilitate HIV infection and replication. Our major focus is to identify the different stages of the viral life cycle regulated by these channels/receptors/neurotransmitters.
3. To examine the role of tunneling nanotubes (TNT) in HIV spread and infection between immune cells. The major focus is to analyze the role of TNT during HIV infection and their role in cell to cell infection and inflammation.
4. The role of drugs of abuse in CNS communication and susceptibility to infections.
Our data indicated that drugs of abuse have profound effects on CNS communication, gap junctions and synaptic receptors, altering signaling coordination and neuronal/glial communication. In addition, drugs of abuse “weaken” key CNS structures such as the BBB, allowing pathogens to invade the brain more easily. Our laboratory is examining the cellular and molecular mechanism by which drugs of abuse enhances CNS invasion and compromise CNS function.
Experimental approach: We use cellular and molecular biological techniques to study the expression, post-transcriptional modifications and intercellular trafficking of neurotransmitters and their receptors, chemokines/cytokines as well as electrophysiology. Our approach involves the use of primary immune and CNS cells and tissues and samples obtained from individuals with NeuroAIDS.
The main goal of the Eugenin Lab is to discover how HIV is able to survive in the human body. In these videos, Associate Professor Eliseo Eugenin and his students describe their work with HIV as it presents itself in NeuroAids and in the cellular migration of HIV-infected T cells, as well as their related work with other, emerging pandemic viruses.
Doctoral student Paul Castellano studies HIV-infected cells of the central nervous system. In these cells, intrinsic apoptotic pathways are disrupted which leads to extended survival of infected cells that prolong infection and inflammation. Paul is targeting these disrupted pathways in order to eliminate HIV infection by allowing naturally occurring apoptosis to run its course.
Immune cells, including T cells, express a key membrane protein called Pannexin1 that forms a membrane channel. These channels regulate the release of intracellular messengers into the extracellular space, including ATP, PGEs, and ions. The Eugenin Lab previously demonstrated that the opening of these channels is essential for HIV infectivity and replication. Clearly, infectivity and replication are related to ethnicity, thus doctoral student Stephani Velasquez is examining the role of these channels in HIV replication and chemokine-mediated migration.
Coley JS, Calderon TM, Gaskill PJ, Eugenin EA, Berman JW (2015) Dopamine Increases CD14+CD16+ Monocyte Migration and Adhesion in the Context of Substance Abuse and HIV Neuropathogenesis. PLoS One 10: e0117450. PMI: 25647501
Carvallo L, Lopez L, Che FY, Lim J, Eugenin EA, Williams DW, Nieves E, Calderon TM, Madrid-Aliste C, Fiser A, Weiss L, Angeletti RH, Berman JW (2015) Buprenorphine Decreases the CCL2-Mediated Chemotactic Response of Monocytes. J Immunol. PMI: 25716997
Velasquez S, Eugenin EA (2014) Role of Pannexin-1 hemichannels and purinergic receptors in the pathogenesis of human diseases. Front Physiol 5: 96. PMI: 24672487
Subbian S, Eugenin E, Kaplan G (2014) Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in latently infected lungs by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. J Med Microbiol 63: 1432-1435. PMI: 25161200
Rella CE, Ruel N, Eugenin EA (2014) Development of imaging techniques to study the pathogenesis of biosafety level 2/3 infectious agents. Pathog Dis 72: 167-173. PMI: 24990818
Rao VR, Neogi U, Eugenin E, Prasad VR (2014) The gp120 protein is a second determinant of decreased neurovirulence of Indian HIV-1C isolates compared to southern African HIV-1C isolates. PLoS One 9: e107074. PMI: 25188269
Orellana JA, Saez JC, Bennett MV, Berman JW, Morgello S, Eugenin EA (2014) HIV increases the release of dickkopf-1 protein from human astrocytes by a Cx43 hemichannel-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem 128: 752-763. PMI: 24134157
Orellana JA, Busso D, Ramirez G, Campos M, Rigotti A, Eugenin J, von Bernhardi R (2014) Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Front Cell Neurosci 8: 403. PMI: 25520621
Liu TB, Subbian S, Pan W, Eugenin E, Xie J, Xue C (2014) Cryptococcus inositol utilization modulates the host protective immune response during brain infection. Cell Commun Signal 12: 51. PMI: 25201772
Eugenin EA (2014) Role of connexin/pannexin containing channels in infectious diseases. FEBS Lett 588: 1389-1395. PMI: 24486013
Daep CA, Munoz-Jordan JL, Eugenin EA (2014) Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus. J Neurovirol 20: 539-560. PMI: 25287260
Cheshenko N, Trepanier JB, Gonzalez PA, Eugenin EA, Jacobs WR, Jr., Herold BC (2014) Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin alphavbeta3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells. J Virol 88: 10026-10038. PMI: 24942591
Castellano P, Eugenin EA (2014) Regulation of gap junction channels by infectious agents and inflammation in the CNS. Front Cell Neurosci 8: 122. PMI: 24847208
Williams DW, Calderon TM, Lopez L, Carvallo-Torres L, Gaskill PJ, Eugenin EA, Morgello S, Berman JW (2013) Mechanisms of HIV entry into the CNS: increased sensitivity of HIV infected CD14+CD16+ monocytes to CCL2 and key roles of CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM in diapedesis. PLoS One 8: e69270. PMI: 23922698
Rao VR, Neogi U, Talboom JS, Padilla L, Rahman M, Fritz-French C, Gonzalez-Ramirez S, Verma A, Wood C, Ruprecht RM, Ranga U, Azim T, Joska J, Eugenin E, Shet A, Bimonte-Nelson H, Tyor WR, Prasad VR (2013) Clade C HIV-1 isolates circulating in Southern Africa exhibit a greater frequency of dicysteine motif-containing Tat variants than those in Southeast Asia and cause increased neurovirulence. Retrovirology 10: 61. PMI: 23758766
Qian X, Hulit J, Suyama K, Eugenin EA, Belbin TJ, Loudig O, Smirnova T, Zhou ZN, Segall J, Locker J, Phillips GR, Norton L, Hazan RB (2013) p21CIP1 mediates reciprocal switching between proliferation and invasion during metastasis. Oncogene 32: 2292-2303, 2303 e2291-2297. PMI: 22751124
Patel D, Desai GM, Frases S, Cordero RJ, DeLeon-Rodriguez CM, Eugenin EA, Nosanchuk JD, Martinez LR (2013) Methamphetamine enhances Cryptococcus neoformans pulmonary infection and dissemination to the brain. MBio 4. PMI: 23900172
Orellana JA, Velasquez S, Williams DW, Saez JC, Berman JW, Eugenin EA (2013) Pannexin1 hemichannels are critical for HIV infection of human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Leukoc Biol 94: 399-407. PMI: 23456773
Megra B, Eugenin E, Roberts T, Morgello S, Berman JW (2013) Protease resistant protein cellular isoform (PrP(c)) as a biomarker: clues into the pathogenesis of HAND. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 8: 1159-1166. PMI: 23616272
Mavrianos J, Berkow EL, Desai C, Pandey A, Batish M, Rabadi MJ, Barker KS, Pain D, Rogers PD, Eugenin EA, Chauhan N (2013) Mitochondrial two-component signaling systems in Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell 12: 913-922. PMI: 23584995
Liu TB, Kim JC, Wang Y, Toffaletti DL, Eugenin E, Perfect JR, Kim KJ, Xue C (2013) Brain inositol is a novel stimulator for promoting Cryptococcus penetration of the blood-brain barrier. PLoS Pathog 9: e1003247. PMI: 23592982
Eugenin EA, Greco JM, Frases S, Nosanchuk JD, Martinez LR (2013) Methamphetamine alters blood brain barrier protein expression in mice, facilitating central nervous system infection by neurotropic Cryptococcus neoformans. J Infect Dis 208: 699-704. PMI: 23532099
Eugenin EA, Berman JW (2013) Cytochrome C dysregulation induced by HIV infection of astrocytes results in bystander apoptosis of uninfected astrocytes by an IP3 and calcium-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem 127: 644-651. PMI: 23992092
Eugenin EA (2013) Community-acquired pneumonia infections by Acinetobacter baumannii: how does alcohol impact the antimicrobial functions of macrophages? Virulence 4: 435-436. PMI: 23863602
D'Aversa TG, Eugenin EA, Lopez L, Berman JW (2013) Myelin basic protein induces inflammatory mediators from primary human endothelial cells and blood-brain barrier disruption: implications for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 39: 270-283. PMI: 22524708
Chung S, Yao J, Suyama K, Bajaj S, Qian X, Loudig OD, Eugenin EA, Phillips GR, Hazan RB (2013) N-cadherin regulates mammary tumor cell migration through Akt3 suppression. Oncogene 32: 422-430. PMI: 22410780
Albornoz EA, Carreno LJ, Cortes CM, Gonzalez PA, Cisternas PA, Cautivo KM, Catalan TP, Opazo MC, Eugenin EA, Berman JW, Bueno SM, Kalergis AM, Riedel CA (2013) Gestational hypothyroidism increases the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in adult offspring. Thyroid 23: 1627-1637. PMI: 23777566
Williams DW, Eugenin EA, Calderon TM, Berman JW (2012) Monocyte maturation, HIV susceptibility, and transmigration across the blood brain barrier are critical in HIV neuropathogenesis. J Leukoc Biol 91: 401-415. PMI: 22227964
Roberts TK, Eugenin EA, Lopez L, Romero IA, Weksler BB, Couraud PO, Berman JW (2012) CCL2 disrupts the adherens junction: implications for neuroinflammation. Lab Invest 92: 1213-1233. PMI: 22641100
Hazleton JE, Berman JW, Eugenin EA (2012) Purinergic receptors are required for HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages. J Immunol 188: 4488-4495. PMI: 22450808
Gaskill PJ, Carvallo L, Eugenin EA, Berman JW (2012) Characterization and function of the human macrophage dopaminergic system: implications for CNS disease and drug abuse. J Neuroinflammation 9: 203. PMI: 22901451
Eugenin EA, Basilio D, Saez JC, Orellana JA, Raine CS, Bukauskas F, Bennett MV, Berman JW (2012) The role of gap junction channels during physiologic and pathologic conditions of the human central nervous system. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 7: 499-518. PMI: 22438035
Cortes C, Eugenin E, Aliaga E, Carreno LJ, Bueno SM, Gonzalez PA, Gayol S, Naranjo D, Noches V, Marassi MP, Rosenthal D, Jadue C, Ibarra P, Keitel C, Wohllk N, Court F, Kalergis AM, Riedel CA (2012) Hypothyroidism in the adult rat causes incremental changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal and astrocyte apoptosis, gliosis, and deterioration of postsynaptic density. Thyroid 22: 951-963. PMI: 22870949
Cortes C, Eugenin E, Aliaga E, Carreno LJ, Bueno SB, Gonzalez P, Gayol S, Naranjo D, Noches V, Marassi MP, Rosenthal D, Jadue C, Ibarra P, Keitel C, Wohllk N, Court F, Kalergis AM, Riedel CA (2012) Hypothyroidism in the Adult Rat Causes an Increment of Bdnf in the Brain, Neuronal and Astrocyte Apoptosis, Gliosis and Deterioration of the Postsynaptic Density. Thyroid. PMI: 22591176
Coniglio SJ, Eugenin E, Dobrenis K, Stanley ER, West BL, Symons MH, Segall JE (2012) Microglial stimulation of glioblastoma invasion involves epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) signaling. Mol Med 18: 519-527. PMI: 22294205
Eugenin EA, King JE, Hazleton JE, Major EO, Bennett MV, Zukin RS, Berman JW (2011) Differences in NMDA receptor expression during human development determine the response of neurons to HIV-tat-mediated neurotoxicity. Neurotox Res 19: 138-148. PMI: 20094923
Eugenin EA, Clements JE, Zink MC, Berman JW (2011) Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human astrocytes disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity by a gap junction-dependent mechanism. J Neurosci 31: 9456-9465. PMI: 21715610
Roberts TK, Eugenin EA, Morgello S, Clements JE, Zink MC, Berman JW (2010) PrPC, the cellular isoform of the human prion protein, is a novel biomarker of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and mediates neuroinflammation. Am J Pathol 177: 1848-1860. PMI: 20724601
King JE, Eugenin EA, Hazleton JE, Morgello S, Berman JW (2010) Mechanisms of HIV-tat-induced phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A in human primary neurons: implications for neuroAIDS pathogenesis. Am J Pathol 176: 2819-2830. PMI: 20448061
Hazleton JE, Berman JW, Eugenin EA (2010) Novel mechanisms of central nervous system damage in HIV infection. HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2: 39-49. PMI: 22096383
Rao VR, Eugenin EA, Berman JW, Prasad VR (2009) Methods to study monocyte migration induced by HIV-infected cells. Methods Mol Biol 485: 295-309. PMI: 19020833
Gaskill PJ, Calderon TM, Luers AJ, Eugenin EA, Javitch JA, Berman JW (2009) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of human macrophages is increased by dopamine: a bridge between HIV-associated neurologic disorders and drug abuse. Am J Pathol 175: 1148-1159. PMI: 19661443
Eugenin EA, Gaskill PJ, Berman JW (2009) Tunneling nanotubes (TNT) are induced by HIV-infection of macrophages: a potential mechanism for intercellular HIV trafficking. Cell Immunol 254: 142-148. PMI: 18835599
Eugenin EA, Gaskill PJ, Berman JW (2009) Tunneling nanotubes (TNT): A potential mechanism for intercellular HIV trafficking. Commun Integr Biol 2: 243-244. PMI: 19641744
Agiostratidou G, Li M, Suyama K, Badano I, Keren R, Chung S, Anzovino A, Hulit J, Qian B, Bouzahzah B, Eugenin E, Loudig O, Phillips GR, Locker J, Hazan RB (2009) Loss of retinal cadherin facilitates mammary tumor progression and metastasis. Cancer Res 69: 5030-5038. PMI: 19491271
Rao VR, Sas AR, Eugenin EA, Siddappa NB, Bimonte-Nelson H, Berman JW, Ranga U, Tyor WR, Prasad VR (2008) HIV-1 clade-specific differences in the induction of neuropathogenesis. J Neurosci 28: 10010-10016. PMI: 18829958
Opazo MC, Gianini A, Pancetti F, Azkcona G, Alarcon L, Lizana R, Noches V, Gonzalez PA, Marassi MP, Mora S, Rosenthal D, Eugenin E, Naranjo D, Bueno SM, Kalergis AM, Riedel CA (2008) Maternal hypothyroxinemia impairs spatial learning and synaptic nature and function in the offspring. Endocrinology 149: 5097-5106. PMI: 18566112
Eugenin EA, Morgello S, Klotman ME, Mosoian A, Lento PA, Berman JW, Schecter AD (2008) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects human arterial smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro: implications for the pathogenesis of HIV-mediated vascular disease. Am J Pathol 172: 1100-1111. PMI: 18310503
D'Aversa TG, Eugenin EA, Berman JW (2008) CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in human microglia induce CXCL8 (interleukin-8) secretion by a mechanism dependent on activation of ERK1/2 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). J Neurosci Res 86: 630-639. PMI: 17918746
Bueno SM, Gonzalez PA, Cautivo KM, Mora JE, Leiva ED, Tobar HE, Fennelly GJ, Eugenin EA, Jacobs WR, Jr., Riedel CA, Kalergis AM (2008) Protective T cell immunity against respiratory syncytial virus is efficiently induced by recombinant BCG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 20822-20827. PMI: 19075247
Eugenin EA, King JE, Nath A, Calderon TM, Zukin RS, Bennett MV, Berman JW (2007) HIV-tat induces formation of an LRP-PSD-95- NMDAR-nNOS complex that promotes apoptosis in neurons and astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104: 3438-3443. PMI: 17360663
Eugenin EA, Gonzalez HE, Sanchez HA, Branes MC, Saez JC (2007) Inflammatory conditions induce gap junctional communication between rat Kupffer cells both in vivo and in vitro. Cell Immunol 247: 103-110. PMI: 17900549
Eugenin EA, Berman JW (2007) Gap junctions mediate human immunodeficiency virus-bystander killing in astrocytes. J Neurosci 27: 12844-12850. PMI: 18032656
King JE, Eugenin EA, Buckner CM, Berman JW (2006) HIV tat and neurotoxicity. Microbes Infect 8: 1347-1357. PMI: 16697675
Eugenin EA, Osiecki K, Lopez L, Goldstein H, Calderon TM, Berman JW (2006) CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mediates enhanced transmigration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier: a potential mechanism of HIV-CNS invasion and NeuroAIDS. J Neurosci 26: 1098-1106. PMI: 16436595
Eugenin EA, Gamss R, Buckner C, Buono D, Klein RS, Schoenbaum EE, Calderon TM, Berman JW (2006) Shedding of PECAM-1 during HIV infection: a potential role for soluble PECAM-1 in the pathogenesis of NeuroAIDS. J Leukoc Biol 79: 444-452. PMI: 16507710
Calderon TM, Eugenin EA, Lopez L, Kumar SS, Hesselgesser J, Raine CS, Berman JW (2006) A role for CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: regulation of CXCL12 expression in astrocytes by soluble myelin basic protein. J Neuroimmunol 177: 27-39. PMI: 16782208
Buckner CM, Luers AJ, Calderon TM, Eugenin EA, Berman JW (2006) Neuroimmunity and the blood-brain barrier: molecular regulation of leukocyte transmigration and viral entry into the nervous system with a focus on neuroAIDS. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 1: 160-181. PMI: 18040782
Eugenin EA, Dyer G, Calderon TM, Berman JW (2005) HIV-1 tat protein induces a migratory phenotype in human fetal microglia by a CCL2 (MCP-1)-dependent mechanism: possible role in NeuroAIDS. Glia 49: 501-510. PMI: 15578658
D'Aversa TG, Eugenin EA, Berman JW (2005) NeuroAIDS: contributions of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 proteins Tat and gp120 as well as CD40 to microglial activation. J Neurosci Res 81: 436-446. PMI: 15954144
Saez CG, Velasquez L, Montoya M, Eugenin E, Alvarez MG (2003) Increased gap junctional intercellular communication is directly related to the anti-tumor effect of all-trans-retinoic acid plus tamoxifen in a human mammary cancer cell line. J Cell Biochem 89: 450-461. PMI: 12761879
Eugenin EA, D'Aversa TG, Lopez L, Calderon TM, Berman JW (2003) MCP-1 (CCL2) protects human neurons and astrocytes from NMDA or HIV-tat-induced apoptosis. J Neurochem 85: 1299-1311. PMI: 12753088
Eugenin EA, Branes MC, Berman JW, Saez JC (2003) TNF-alpha plus IFN-gamma induce connexin43 expression and formation of gap junctions between human monocytes/macrophages that enhance physiological responses. J Immunol 170: 1320-1328. PMI: 12538692
Eugenin EA, Berman JW (2003) Chemokine-dependent mechanisms of leukocyte trafficking across a model of the blood-brain barrier. Methods 29: 351-361. PMI: 12725802
Martinez AD, Eugenin EA, Branes MC, Bennett MV, Saez JC (2002) Identification of second messengers that induce expression of functional gap junctions in microglia cultured from newborn rats. Brain Res 943: 191-201. PMI: 12101041
Gonzalez HE, Eugenin EA, Garces G, Solis N, Pizarro M, Accatino L, Saez JC (2002) Regulation of hepatic connexins in cholestasis: possible involvement of Kupffer cells and inflammatory mediators. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282: G991-G1001. PMI: 12016124
Contreras JE, Sanchez HA, Eugenin EA, Speidel D, Theis M, Willecke K, Bukauskas FF, Bennett MV, Saez JC (2002) Metabolic inhibition induces opening of unapposed connexin 43 gap junction hemichannels and reduces gap junctional communication in cortical astrocytes in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99: 495-500. PMI: 11756680
Eugenin EA, Eckardt D, Theis M, Willecke K, Bennett MV, Saez JC (2001) Microglia at brain stab wounds express connexin 43 and in vitro form functional gap junctions after treatment with interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 4190-4195. PMI: 11259646
Dougnac A, Riquelme A, Calvo M, Andresen M, Magedzo A, Eugenin E, Marshall G, Gutierrez M (2001) [Study of cytokines kinetics in severe sepsis and its relationship with mortality and score of organic dysfunction]. Rev Med Chil 129: 347-358. PMI: 11413986
Saez JC, Branes MC, Corvalan LA, Eugenin EA, Gonzalez H, Martinez AD, Palisson F (2000) Gap junctions in cells of the immune system: structure, regulation and possible functional roles. Braz J Med Biol Res 33: 447-455. PMI: 10775310
Bitran M, Tapia W, Eugenin E, Orio P, Boric MP (1999) Neuropeptide Y induced inhibition of noradrenaline release in rat hypothalamus: role of receptor subtype and nitric oxide. Brain Res 851: 87-93. PMI: 10642831
Eugenin EA, Gonzalez H, Saez CG, Saez JC (1998) Gap junctional communication coordinates vasopressin-induced glycogenolysis in rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol 274: G1109-1116. PMI: 9696712
Eugenin EA, Saez CG, Garces G, Saez JC (1997) Regulation of glycogen content in rat pineal gland by norepinephrine. Brain Res 760: 34-41. PMI: 9237515
Doctoral Degree, Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2001.
Degree in Biochemistry, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile, 1996.
Postdoctoral Studies, The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Pathology, 2001-2004.
Instructor Scientific, The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Pathology, 2005-2007.
Assistant Professor of Pathology, The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Pathology, 2007-2012.